Environmental Legislation, International Initiatives of Kazakhstan on Climate Change, International Cooperation on Adaptation and Transboundary River Management
In the context of mitigation commitments the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has signed the Law “On amendments and changes in several legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on environmental issues”. The law aims at strengthening administrative and criminal responsibility, improve law enforcement of environmental offences, and enhance implementation of provisions of the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. In accordance with the provisions of the law and amendments to the Environmental Code, in 2013 Kazakhstan introduces the carbon market to control GHG emissions and toughen penalties for environmental damage. In addition, the country introduces stricter measures on environmental pollution, damage to biodiversity and water resources. The Government has already approved and signed nine bylaws that determine the conditions and principles of the carbon market development in Kazakhstan.
International Initiatives of Kazakhstan on Climate Change
On May 3, 2012, within the framework of IV Astana Economic Forum the Ministry of Environment Protection held a session Green Growth – Post-Kyoto Prospects. The participants discussed the issues of green economy development, mitigation of human impact on the environment and human health, preservation and restoration of natural ecosystems, development and enhancement of environmental management systems.
Kazakhstan presented the Europe-Asia-Pacific Partnership Programme under the Astana Green Bridge Initiative for 2011-2020. The Programme aims mainly at the development of cooperation between the countries of Europe, Asia and the Pacific in their transition from the conventional models of economy to the green growth concept, mechanisms of combining the processes of economic growth and environmental protection within the framework of the Green Bridge Partnership Programme.
On May 13, 2012 at the CSD-19 closing meeting, held with the assistance of the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Mr. Rae Kwon Chung, Director, Environment and Development Division, ESCAP, supported the Astana Initiative as a successful regional contribution to the Rio+20 Conference.
As a result two initiatives of Kazakhstan – Astana Green Bridge Initiative and Global Energy and
Environment Strategy – were included in the final document of Rio+20 conference.
International Cooperation on Adaptation and Transboundary River Management
Water scarcity issues and water-related issues of adaptation, particularly crucial in recent years in neighboring countries and transboundary rivers, find their solution in interstate treaties and agreements. For instance the state visit of the Head of State Nursultan Nazarbayev to China in February 2012 an agreement was signed between the Government of Kazakhstan and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on water quality protection of transboundary rivers.
On June 13, 2012, Astana, during the visit of President Hu Jintao to Kazakhstan an agreement was signed between the Government of Kazakhstan and the Government of China on environmental issues cooperation.
This agreement commits the two countries to ensure the quality of water in the rivers, and allows the parties regulating water protection management, control and monitoring on transboundary rivers, as well as cooperation in environmental protection. Besides, the Agreement facilitates cooperation in environmental protection, and namely prevention and control of air and water pollution with solid and hazardous waste, control of radioactive pollution, biodiversity conservation, and issues related to climate change adaptation.
Prepared by Alexei Cherednichenko,
Expert of the Regional Environmental Centre for Central Asia